We consider the Bayesian calibration of models describing the phenomenon of block copolymer (BCP) self-assembly using image data produced by microscopy or X-ray scattering techniques. To account for the random long-range disorder in BCP equilibrium structures, we introduce auxiliary variables to represent this aleatory uncertainty. These variables, however, result in an integrated likelihood for high-dimensional image data that is generally intractable to evaluate. We tackle this challenging Bayesian inference problem using a likelihood-free approach based on measure transport together with the construction of summary statistics for the image data. We also show that expected information gains (EIGs) from the observed data about the model parameters can be computed with no significant additional cost. Lastly, we present a numerical case study based on the Ohta–Kawasaki model for diblock copolymer thin film self-assembly and top-down microscopy characterization. For calibration, we introduce several domain-specific energy- and Fourier-based summary statistics, and quantify their informativeness using EIG. We demonstrate the power of the proposed approach to study the effect of data corruptions and experimental designs on the calibration results.